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Phonetics Notes

Notes for LIN228

Disclaimer: The notes below are fully/partially NOT created by myself. They are from slides and/or wikipedia and/or textbook. The purpose of this post is simply to learn and review for the course. If you think something is inappropriate, please contact me at “ryan_yrs [at] hotmail [dot] com” immediately and I will remove it as soon as possible.

Places of Ariculation

  • Upper (Passive) Articulator
    • Lip 唇
    • Teeth 齒
    • Alveolar Ridge 牙槽嵴
    • Post Alveolar Ridge 後牙槽嵴
    • Palate 硬腭
    • Velum 軟腭
  • Lower (Active) Articulator
    • Lip
    • Tip
    • Blade
    • Front
    • Back

Bilabial

  • Lip
  • Lip
  • p b m

Labio-Dental

  • Teeth
  • Lip
  • f v

Dental

  • Teeth
  • Tip
  • θ ð

Alveolar

  • Alveolar Ridge
  • Tip
  • t d s z l n

Retroflex

  • Post Alveolar Ridge
  • Tip
  • r

Post Alveolar

  • Post Alveolar Ridge
  • Blade
  • ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ

Palatal

  • Palate
  • Front
  • j

Velar

  • Velum
  • Back
  • k g ŋ

Special Symbols

  • l
    • Oral
    • Voiced
  • r
    • Voiced
  • m n ŋ
    • Voiced (All nasals are voiced in English)
  • w
    • Labio-Velar

Sagittal Section

  • Pharynx 咽
    • Nasal Pharynx
    • Oral Pharynx
    • Laryngeal Pharynx
  • Pharyngeal Wall
  • Epiglottis 會厭
  • Esophagus 食道
  • Larynx 喉
  • Adam’s Apple 喉結
  • Vocal Folds 聲帶
  • Trachea 氣管

Degree of Constriction

  • Closure
    • Stop
    • p t n tʃ
  • Narrow Opening
    • Fricative
    • f s ʃ tʃ
  • Wide Opening
    • Approximant
    • l r

Labial

  • Bilabial
    • p b m w
  • Labio-Dental
    • f v

Coronal

  • Dental
    • θ ð
  • Alveolar
    • t d s z n l
  • Post Alveolar
    • ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ
  • Retroflex
    • r

Dorsal

  • Palatal
    • j
  • Velar
    • k g ŋ w

Glottal

  • h

Oral Stop

  • Bilabial
    • p b
  • Alveolar
    • t d
  • Velar
    • k g

Fricative

  • Labio-Dental
    • f v
  • Dental
    • θ ð
  • Alveolar
    • s z
  • Post-Alveolar
    • ʃ ʒ
  • Glottal
    • h

Affricate

  • (= Stop + Fricative)
    • tʃ dʒ

Nasal Stop

  • Bilabal
    • m
  • Alveolar
    • n
  • Velar
    • ŋ

Approximant

  • Lateral
    • Alveolar
      • l
  • Rhotic
    • Retroflex
      • r
  • Glide
    • Bilabial
      • w
    • Palatal
      • j
    • Velar
      • w

Phoneme

  • Contrastive sounds, capable of creating differences in meaning.
  • Transcription with little/no PHONETIC detail.

Allophone

  • Positional variants of phonemes, not contrastive.
  • Does not distinguish meaning.

EPG (Electro-Palato-Graphy 電子顎位儀)

  • A technique that:
    • Uses an artificial palate with builtin electrodes.
    • Tracks contact of tongue & roof of mouth.
  • Top: Alveolar Ridge
  • Bottom: Velum

Line Drawing

  • Special Symbols
    • Dental: dent
    • Palato-Alveolar: p-a
    • Lateral: lat
    • Retroflex: ret (2)
    • Palatal: pal (For dorsal)
  • Labial & Coronal & Dorsal
    • With this feature: 0
    • W/o: 3
  • Velic
    • Oral: 0
    • Nasal: 3
  • Glottal
    • Voiceless: 0
    • Voiced: Vibrating

Length

  • Inherent Length
    • Length which is independent on the context.
    • Tense vowels are longer than lax vowels.
  • Context Length
    • Length which is dependent on the context.
    • Vowels are shorter before VOICELESS consonants AND in UNSTRESSED syllables.
  •   VOICELESS VOICED FINAL
    DI bait [ej] spade [eˑj] day [eˑj]
    TENSE beat [iˑ] bead [iː] bee [iː]
    LAX hit [ɪ] hid [ɪˑ] (Does not exist)

Canadian Raising

  • /aj/ => [ʌj] before voiceLESS consonant ONLY
  • /aw/ => [ʌw] before voiceLESS consonant ONLY
  • e.g.
    • hide [aj]
    • loud [aw]
    • fly [aj]
    • how [aw]
    • bite [ʌj]
    • snout [ʌw]

Sound Wave

  • Travelling pressure fluctuaciton
  • Propagates thru a medium
  • Impinges on eardrum produce sensation of sound
  • Is often cyclic, repetitive

Sine Wave

  • A simple periodic (Symmetrical S-shaped) wave, a pure tone
  • Amplitude: Degree of variation in air pressure from neutral to higher and lower (Unit: hPa [Hecto-Pascal] or mb [millibar])
  • Intensity: Power transmitted by wave (Unit: dB [Decibel])
    • Both: Physical properties
    • Correlate with LOUDNESS (a psychological property)
    • Some intensities
      • 0 dB: Threshold of audibility
      • 30 dB: Whispered conversation
      • 60 dB: Normal conversation
      • 110 dB: Rock concert
      • 120 dB: Threshold of pain

Frequency

  • A number of cycles per second (Hz [Hertz])
    • A physical property
    • Correlates with pitch (A psychological property)
    • Greater the frequency - THe higher the pitch of a sound
  • = #Cycles / Time (In seconds)
  • Some frequencies
    • 20 Hz: Lowest perceptible
    • 120 Hz: Avg man’s speech
    • 225 Hz: Avg woman’s speech
    • 265 Hz: Avg child’s speech
    • 20000 Hz: Highest perceptible

Complex Repetitive (Periodic) Wave

  • Speech sounds are more complex

Fourier Analysis

  • A math technique decomposing complex repetitive waves into combinations of simple sine waves.
  • A human ear is believed to perform a Fourier-like analysis.

Harmonic

Individual component waves of a complex wave.

Fundamental Frequency (F0)

  • ~ of a complex wave = The harmonic with the lowest frequency.

Spectrum 光學頻譜

A display that shows the amplitude (or intensity) of each harmonic.

Resonance 共鳴

  • A natural tendency of a body to vibrate at certain frequencies.
  • Resonating properties of the vocal tract can change as we change the shape of our vocal tract.
    • Some frequencies are REINFORCED, others are FILTERED OUT.

Formant 共振峰

Clusters of harmonics that are reinforced. F1, F2, F3

Spectrogram 時頻譜

  • A display showing time (x), frequency (y), and intensity (darkness).
    • Narrow-Band
      • Higher FREQ resolution, easy to see individual HARMONICS.
      • Can easily measure pitch (F0).
    • Wide-Band
      • Higher TEMPORAL resolution, easy to see individual WAVE CYCLES.
      • Most useful for characterizing phonetic segments.

Noise

Aperiodic waves, involve random fluctuations of amplitude (intensity).

Vowel Production

  • Tongue divides vocal tract into 2 resonating cavities: Front & Back.
  • Front cavity can be modified by lips.
  •   BACK FRONT
    /i/ LARGE SMALL
    /ɑ/ SMALL LARGE
    /u/ LARGE LARGE
    • /u/ Front: Increased by LIP PROTRUSION

English Vowel Formant

  • Vowels progressively in order
    • High front
    • Low front
    • Low back
    • High back
  • Generalization
    • F1
      • 250 - 800 Hz
      • Starts LOW
      • RISES until vowel [ʌ]
      • Then F1 FALLS
    • F2
      • 800 - 2600 Hz
      • Starts HIGH
      • GRADUALLY FALLS

Stress 重音

Stress in English is acoustically manifested by differences - Voiceless in: - Greater intensity - Higher pitch - Longer duration

Acoustic Properties

  • Strength (Strong to Weak)
    • Vowel
    • Glide
    • Liquid
    • Nasal
  • Noise
    • Sibilant (High intensity)
    • Non-Sibilant (Low intensity)
  • Voice
    • Voiceless: + Aspiration Noise for stops
    • Voiced: + A voice bar
  • Silence + Noise
    • Stop: Silence + Abrupt onset of SHORT noise
    • Affricate: Silence + Abrupt onset of LONG noise
  • f < θ < ʃ < s

Property of Vowels

  • Height
  • Backness
  • Rounding

Notes on Narrow Transcription

  • Aspiration happens only at STRESSED syllable.
  • Length happens only at STRESSED syllable.
  • Canadian Raising happens only before VOICELESS & STRESSED syllable.
  • Voiced consonant at final position

Vowels

  • TYPE # VOWELS # LANGUAGES EXAMPLE
    Small 2-4 93 Cree
    Average 5-6 287 Japanese, Spanish
    Large 7-14 184 English

Cardinal Vowels

  • Cardinal vowels are produced AT EXTREME PERIPHERY of vowel space and are EQUIDISTANT from one another.
  • PRIMARY
    • FRONT
      • i (Unrounded)
      • e (Unrounded)
      • ɛ (Unrounded)
      • a (Unrounded)
    • BACK
      • ɑ (Unrounded)
      • ɔ (Rounded)
      • o (Rounded)
      • u (Rounded)
  • SECONDARY
    • FRONT
      • y (Rounded)
      • ø (Rounded)
      • œ (Rounded)
      • ɶ (Rounded)
    • BACK
      • ɒ (Rounded)
      • ʌ (Unrounded)
      • ɤ (Unrounded)
      • ɯ (Unrounded)
    • MID
      • ɨ
      • ʉ
    • CENTER
      • ə
  •   FRONT CENTRAL BACK
    HIGH i,y ɨ,ʉ ɯ,u
    UPPER MID e,ø ɘ,ɵ ɤ,o
    MID   ə  
    LOWER MID ɛ,œ ɜ,ɞ ʌ,ɔ
    LOW a,ɶ   ɑ,ɒ
  • Purpose
    • To provide REFERENCE POINTS in description of vowels.
  • Vowel systems of particular languages
    • Are transcribed by using cardinal vowel symbol that is CLOSEST to each vowel in language.
  • Additional vowel symbols
    • Raising
    • Lowering
    • Fronting
    • Backing

Acoustics of Cardinal Vowels

  • Back: F1
  • Front: F2
  • Large: Low
  • Small: High
  • Back Cavity is large: Low F1
  • Back Cavity is small: High F1
  • Front Cavity is large: Low F2
  • Front Cavity is small: High F2
  • Adding lip rounding lowers F2
    • Since it increases front cavity
  • Rhoticization causes lowering of F3

Additional Vowel Quality

  • Nasalization
    • Produced with a lowered velum, [◌̃]
    • English
      • Allophonic
      • Non-contrastive
    • French
      • Phonemic
      • Contrastive
  • Rhoticization
    • Produced by curling back TIP OF TONGUE, [◌˞]
    • English
      • Vowels before /ɹ/ are ALLOPHONICALLY rhotacized.
    • Badaga
      • PHONEMIC rhotacized vowels. 2 degrees of rhoticization:
        • [◌˞]
        • [◌˞˞]
    • Rhoticization causes lowering of F3
  • Length [ː]
    • English
      • Vowel length is ALLOPHONIC (Inherent/Contextual)
    • Some other languages
      • Phonemic length distinction
  • Glide
    • NON-SYLLABIC counterparts of vowels
    • Any vowel symbol can be made to represent a glide by using a subscript arch [◌̯]
    • Special symbols
      • i -> j
      • u -> w
      • ɯ -> ɰ
      • y -> ɥ

Place of Articulation

  • Bilabial
    • p b m => ɸ β
  • Labio-Dental
    • f v => ɱ
  • Linguo-Labial
    • ◌̼
  • Labio-Dental
    • f v => ɱ
  • Apico-Dental
    • ◌̺
  • Dental
    • ◌̪
  • Laminal
    • ◌̻
  • Retroflex
    • [˞]
  • Alveo-Palatal
    • ɕ ʑ
  • Palatal
    • c ɟ ç ʝ ɲ
  • Velar
    • x ɣ
  • Uvular
    • q ɢ χ ʁ ɴ
  • Pharyngeal
    • ħ ʕ
  • Glottal
    • h ɦ ʔ

Double Articulation

  • w ʍ
  • k͡p ɡ͡b
  • t͡p d͡b
  • ɧ (ʃx)

Secondary Articulation

SECONDARY VOWEL QUALITY DIACRITIC
LABIALIZATION [u] ʷ
PALATALIZATION [i] ʲ
VELARIZATION [ɤ] ˠ (or ~)
PHARYNGEALIZATION [ɑ] ˤ (or ~)

Acoustics: Place of Articulation

  • Labial
    • Lower F2
  • Coronal
    • Higher F2
  • Velar
    • F2 & F3 Close (A velar pinch)
    • Higher F2

Place & Manner of Articulation

  • Stop
    • A complete closure in the oral cavity/larynx.
    • Silence + burst
    • Place
      • Bilabial
        • p b
        • EPG: (Empty)
      • Alveolar
        • t d
        • EPG: 冂
      • Velar
        • k g
        • EPG: 凹
    • Fricative
      • A narrow stricture in oral cavity
      • Frication (Noise)
    • Approximant
      • Little obstruction in oral cavity
      • (Weak) format structure

Manner: Rhotic & Trill

IPA DESCRIPTION
[ɾ] Apical Alveolar TAP
[r] Apical Alveolar TRILL
[ɽ] Retroflex FLAP
[ɻ] Retroflex APPROX
[ʀ] Uvular TRILL
[ʀ◌̞] Uvular APPROX
[r̝] Alveolar Fricative TRILL ([ʒ]+[r])
[ʙ] Non-Rhotic Bilabial TRILL

Manner: Lateral

IPA DESCRIPTION TYPE
[l] Alveolar Approximant
[ɭ] Retroflex Approximant
[ʎ] Palatal Approximant
[ʟ] Velar Approximant
[ɬ] Voiceless Alveolar Lateral Fricative
[ɮ] Voiced Alveolar Lateral Fricative

Anatomy of Phonation

  • Thyroid Cartilage
  • Ligamental Glottis
  • Cartilagenous Glottis
  • Arytenoid Cartilage

VOT (Voice Onset Time)

  • The time from the release of the stop until voicing begins.
  • Positive or negative.
  • Longer or shorter.
  • 2-Way Contrast: /p/ /b/
    • Type 1: [pʰ] vs. [b◌̥b]
    • Type 2: [p] vs. [b]
    • Type 3: [pʰʰ] vs. [p]
  • 3-Way Contrast

Airstream Mechanism

  • Direction of Airflow
    • Egressive: Outwards
    • Ingressive: Inwards
  • Body part controlling the air pressure
    • Pulmonic
    • Glottalic
    • Velaric
  • Diff Parts
    • Nasal Passage
    • Velic Closure
    • Oral Cavity
    • Pharynx
    • Glottis
    • Lung
  •   PULMONIC GLOTALLIC VELARIC
    EGRESSIVE Lungs COMPRESS, increasing air pressure in body, air goes out. In all languages [p t k] etc. Larynx COMPRESSES?, increasing air pressure in oral cavity. EJECTIVE [p’ t’ k’] Same as INGRESSIVE, but tongue moves ___, increasing air pressure.
    INGRESSIVE Lungs EXPAND, decreasing air pressure in body, air goes in. Rarely used. Larynx EXPANDS?, decreasing air pressure in oral cavity. IMPLOSIVE [ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ] Tongue makes a dorso-velar closure, with a simultaneous more anterior closure. Tongue is pulled ___, decreasing air pressure at front. CLICK [ ʘ ǀ ǃ ǂ ǁ]

Click

  • ʘ Bilabial
  • ǀ Dental
  • ǃ Post-Alveolar
  • ǂ Palatal-Alveolar
  • ǁ Alveolar Lateral

Stress

  • Types
    • Lexical Stress
      • Not predictable
      • Stressed syllables have to be lexically specified
      • Example
        • English
        • Russian
    • Fixed Stress
      • Predictable
      • Not lexically specified
      • Example
        • French (On final)

Tone & Others

  • The use of pitch (Independently of segments or syllables) used to distinguish WORD MEANING is referred to as TONE.
  • Same kinds of intonation contours, but on top of word-specific tonal patterns.
  • Types
    • Register Tone
      • Level Tones
      • Usually 2-3
        • HL
        • HLM
      • Symbol
        • H á
        • L à
        • M ā
        • LH ǎ
        • HL â
    • Contour Tone
      • Have a specific shape at a specific pitch level.
      • Example
        • Mandarin
        • Cantonese
    • Pitch Accent
      • Only are lexcially specified for tone (max 1/word)
      • Others receive tone by default, from a general tonal pattern
      • Example
        • Japanese
    • Intonation
      • Use of pitch used to mark MEANING OF AN UTTERANCE.
      • Intonational Curves (Contours)
        • Mark tonic syllable with X at beginning of it (above).
        • For statements, apply a falling curve, breaking it up before tonic syllable (unless it is first syllable).
        • For yes/no question or lists, apply a rising curve, breaking it up same way.
      • Falling
        • Neutral Statement
        • Wh-Question
        • Command
      • Rising
        • Tentative Statement
        • Yes-No Question
        • Request

English Accents

  • Types
    • RP (Received Pronunciation)
    • GA (General American)
    • CE (Canadian English)
    • etc
  • Rhoticism
    • Presence/Absence of /ɹ/ in a SYLLABLE CODA.
    • Rhotic Accents
      • GA
      • CE
      • Irish
      • Scottish
    • Non-Rhotic Accents
      • RP
      • West Indian
      • Australian
      • New Zealand
      • SE US
      • African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
  • Intervocalic /t/
    • Realization of Intervocalic /t/
      • [ɾ]
        • GA
        • CE
        • New Zealand
      • [d]
        • Australian
      • [ʔt]
        • RP varieties
        • Cockney
  • Back Vowels (Caught-Cot Distinction)
    •   CAUGHT COT CALM EXAMPLE
      1-WAY /ɑ/ /ɑ/ /ɑ/ CE
      2-WAY /ɔ/ /ɑ/ /ɑ/ GA
      3-WAY /ɔ/ /ɒ/ /ɑ/ RP
  • Front Vowels (Merry-Marry-Mary Distinction)
    •   MERRY MARRY MARY EXAMPLE
      1-WAY /ɛ/ /ɛ/ /ɛ/ GA, CE
      3-WAY /ɛ/ /æ/ /eə/ RP
  • Presence of /h/
    • Presence
      • Most accents
    • Absence
      • Cockney
      • Australian
      • West Indies
  • wh
    • /w/
      • RP
      • GA (Most)
      • CE
    • /ʍ/
      • Scottish
      • Irish
  • Mid, Tense Vowel
    • Di-phthong
      • hate /hejt/, boat /bowt/ (CE, GA)
      • hate /hejt/, boat /bəwt/ (RP)
      • hate /hʌjt/, boat /bʌwt/ (NZ)
    • Mono-phthong
      • hate /het/, boat /bot/ (Scottish, West Indies)
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