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Sanskrit Review

Devanagari

  • ऋ r.
  • ॠ rr.
  • ऌ l.
  • ॡ ll.
  • पृ pr.
  • पॄ prr.
  • पॢ pl.
  • पॣ pll.
  • पं pam. (not pm.)
  • पः pah. (not ph.)
  • य ya
  • र ra
  • ल la
  • व va
  • TODO: Consonants!!
  • TODO: Conjuncts!!
  • TODO: Irregular Conjuncts!!

Cases

  • TODO!!

Simple & Diphthong Vowel

  • Diphthong
    • e
    • ai
    • o
    • au
  • Simple
    • Others

Digits

  • ० 1
  • १ 2
  • २ 3
  • ३ 4
  • ४ 5
  • ५ 6
  • ६ 7
  • ७ 8
  • ८ 9
  • ९ 10

Short & Long Vowel

  • Short (all short)
    • except: e
    • except: o
  • Long (all long)
    • plus: e
    • plus: o

Vowel Relationship

  • e
    • a + i
    • a + ī
    • a + y
    • ay
  • ai
    • a + a + i
    • a + a + ī
    • ā + i
    • ā + ī
    • ā + y
    • āy
  • o
    • a + u
    • a + ū
    • a + v
    • av
  • au
    • a + a + u
    • a + a + ū
    • ā + u
    • ā + ū
    • ā + v
    • āv
  • y
    • i
    • ī
  • v
    • u
    • ū
  • r
    • r.
    • rr.
  • l
    • l.
    • ll.
  • DEVANAGARI ORDER: TODO

Śuddhasvāra

A simple vowel.

Guṇa & Vṛddhi

  • They are regarded as a “strengthening” of a śuddhasvāra, by adding a short a sound into it.
  • The first stage, the first adding of “a”, is called guṇa.
  • The second adding of “a”, is called vṛddhi.

Saṃprasāraṇa

  • A vocalization of the semivowel. Here, a semivowel is replaced by the vowel that is its closest equivalent.

Sandhi

TODO

Special words

sma -ed iti (quotation mark) iva like api (question mark) ati/atīva too evam thus eva really (emphasis) ca and na not saha with vinā without

Pronouns

  • k - Interrogative
  • y - Relative
  • t - Demonstrative

Indefinite Statement

  • y- + k- + api
  • e.g.
  • yena (by the one which) + kena (by whom?) + api = yena kenāpi (by somebody/other)
  • yatra (the place where) + kutra (where?) + api = yatra kutrāpi (somewhere/other)
  • Addition of an indefinite particle
    • cit
    • cana
    • api
  • turns an interrogative pronoun into an indefinite pronoun.

Absolute Negative

  • na

Negation

  • na: Negate a verbal phrase.
  • a/an: Negate a nominal item.

Abstract Construction

A passive sentence using an intransitive verb: “It”

PPP (Past Passive Participle)

  • Formation
    • ta
    • ita
    • na
  • Negation
    • a-
    • an-

Bhavant

  • (address sb. politely)
  • bhavant (his honor, you)
  • bhavatī (her honor, you)
  • atra-bhavant (his honor here)
  • atra-bhavatī (her honor here)
  • tatra-bhavant (his honor there)
  • tatra-bhavatī (her honor there)
  • Note: bhavant will be seen only in m & f, not n.

PAP (Past Active Participle)

  • Made by adding -vant to PPP

Gerund

  • meaning: having done
  • formation:
    • -tvā
    • ya (root has prefix)
    • tya (root has prefix & ends in short vowel)

Imperative

  • Active: See chart
  • Passive: Formed by adding the ātmanepada imperative endings to the passive stem.
  • Negation: mā

Infinitive

  • -itum/-tum

Present Participle

  • Meaning
    • doing
    • being done
  • Formation
    • P: Dropping -i of 3P
    • Ā: -māna

Simple Future

  • -sya-

Derivative Verb

  • Causative
    • cause to do
    • -ay
  • Desiderative
    • want to do
    • wish to do
    • -sa
  • Intensive
    • -ya
    • do something a lot
  • Denominative
    • Stem based on a noun/adj
    • become
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